Assessment Glossary
Term Ferris Definition Examples Synonyms
Accountability Being responsible to stakeholders--such as students and their families, legislators, and accreditors--on the organization’s performance in meeting its goals and commitments. Being able, either graphically or in narrative, to indicate all students’ progress toward program outcomes. Responsibility
Utilizing continuous improvement activities to ensure student success.
Assessment A process of collecting and reporting data to determine how well students are achieving intended learning outcomes and to inform changes in courses or programs to improve student (learning) success. At the course and program levels, assessment indicates how well each component meets its goals or outcomes.
  • Portfolios
  • Exams
  • Performances
  • Observations
Evaluation
Criterion-based Assessment The process of evaluating the learning of students against a set of pre-specified criteria.
  • Completion of a project within a standardized degree of tolerance 
  • Completion of a task within a standardized level of acceptability
  • A written assignment that is evaluated against the qualities expected in a work of this type
Outcome based assessment
Curriculum Map A chart that shows where and how in the curriculum program outcomes are addressed, to ensure completeness and avoid excessive overlap.

See Curriculum_Map

See also Pedagogical Hierarchy

  • Program matrix
  • Curriculum Map
  • Course Map
  • Course Matrix
Direct Measure Demonstration of students' knowledge, skills, and/or behaviors.
  • Conceptual paper
  • Computer program
  • Graphic design
  • Presentation
  • X-ray
  • Authentic Assessment
  • Real-world performance
Bloom's Taxonomy or Educational Taxonomy of Educational Objectives The original modeldeveloped by Benjamin Bloom that established six different levels of learning:
  1. Evaluation
  2. Synthesis
  3. Analysis
  4. Application
  5. Comprehension
  6. Knowledge
See also Revised Taxonomy Levels of learning
Formative Assessment

Feedback (not necessarily a grade) generally qualitative provided to students about the status of their knowledge, skills, and/or behaviors.  Formative assessment occurs prior to the end of the lesson or course and serves to report progress and to assist in forming a plan for attainment of the objective(s) or goal(s).

The key is tying each to objectives or outcomes and using the data to determine level of student learning of that objective/outcome.

  • An oral quiz or questioning during instruction.
  • A written quiz in mid-instruction
  • Homework assignment
  • Feedback
  • Critique
  • An evaluation of a draft report.
  • Assessment of a dress rehearsal.
Goal Broad statement of desired results--achievement of which is usually accomplished after graduation.
  • Graduates will be employable in their field.
  • Graduates will have the skills to advance within their
  • profession.
  • Graduates will demonstrate problem-solving abilities in a variety of contexts
  • Graduates will engage in lifelong learning.
  • Graduates will join professional associations.
Reference specialized accreditors, such as ABET or TEAC
Indirect Measures

Reports on performances that reveal perceptions

Perceptions, beliefs, or opinions of students' knowledge, skills, and/or behaviors.

  • Alumni Surveys
  • Student Satisfaction Surveys
  • Focus Groups
  • Exit Interview
  • Learning Narratives
  • NSSE
  • Employer Surveys
Surveys
Learning Activities, Learner Centered Specific, planned activities that center on the learner being actively and wholly involved in the planning, creation, execution, and/or evaluation of the activity.  The Instructor typically observes, facilitates, advises, and assesses the activity.
  • Student presentations
  • Student panel discussions
  • Research and reporting
  • Summary of Accomplishments
  • Student-focused learning
  • Student-centered
Learning Activities, Instructor Centered Specific, planned activities that center on the Instructor being actively and wholly involved in the planning, creation, execution, evaluation, and final assessment of the activity.  The student is typically a somewhat passive observer.
  • Lecture
  • Demonstrations
  • Directed reading
Teacher-focused learning
Learning Outcomes Statements of how and what knowledge, skills, and behaviors students are expected to demonstrate at the module, course, or program level. Module  Learners will present the findings of their research utilizing appropriate presentation techniques.
Course  Students will produce a marketing plan that meets specified criteria and incorporates all major components.
Program  Graduates will produce a schematic that illustrates all HVACR requirements for a new commercial building.
  • Outcomes
  • Competencies
Ability-Based Outcomes A focus on the skills needed to perform a certain task rather than the knowledge of the task
  • Pharmacy Residency Learning System
  • Student Teaching
  • Task-based Outcomes
  • Core abilities
Norm-referenced assessment The process of evaluating and ranking students' knowledge, skills, and behaviors relative to that of their peers.
  • ACT
  • MAPP (Motivational Appraisal of Personal Potential)
Standardized Tests
Objectives A specific, measurable step to achieve a goal or outcome. Students will be able to successfully calculate the energy needed to yield a chemical reaction.
  • Enabling objectives
  • Supporting objectives
Portfolio

A pre-planned collection of work over a course, internship, or program that is the basis of evaluation.

Includes student's reflection on each exhibit, how they learned, what they learned, how they will use it, how it relates to outcomes.

Capstone portfolio for program or course Journal and attachments
Pre- and post-assessment The use of the same or similar instrument at different times in a module, course, or program to measure change in students' knowledge, skills, and/or behaviors. Oral quiz Written quiz KWL chart (Know, Want to Know, Learned) Pre- and post-testing
Rubric A set of criteria or a scale developed to evaluate students' knowledge, skills, and/or behaviors.  See Rubric Example 
  • Scoring Guide
  • Checklist
SMART Acronym for characteristics of good goals, outcomes, and/or objectives  Specific, Measurable, Action-oriented, Realistic, Time-Based    
Standardized Instrument A test that allows scores to be compared across populations and over time.  These instruments are often externally developed and either norm or criterion-referenced.
  • MAPP
  • CAAP
  • ACT
  • Work Keys
Standardized tests
Summative Assessment Feedback that is given to students that typically is in the form of a grade or other evaluative measure of their knowledge, skills, and/or behaviors. Summative Assessment occurs at the completion of the assignment, project, or course.
  • Final exam
  • Performance
  • Portfolio
  • Thesis
  • Project
  • The score given to the final submission of a report.
Final Assessment

Revised Educational Taxonomy

Measures students learning on two dimensions: Knowledge and Cognitive Process

The Knowledge Dimension The Cognitive Process Dimension
1. Remember 2. Understand 3. Apply 4. Analyze 5. Evaluate 6. Create
  1. Factual Knowledge
           
  1. Conceptual Knowledge
           
  1. C. Procedural Knowledge
           
  1. Meta-Cognitive Knowledge
           

Adapted from Anderson, L. W. & Krathwohl, D. R. (eds.) (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Curriculum Map

Introduced, R = Reinforced, A = Assessed

PROGRAM OUTCOMES Course A Course B Course C
1 I R A
2 I A  
3   I R,A
4 I   R,A
5 I A  
6   I,A  


Rubric Example

  Criteria Points
  4 3 2 1  
Attendance / Promptness Student is always prompt and regularly attends classes. Student is late to class once every two weeks and regularly attends classes. Student is late to class more than once every two weeks and regularly attends classes. Student is late to class more than once a week and/or has poor attendance of classes. ____
Level Of Engagement In Class Student proactively contributes to class by offering ideas and asking questions more than once per class. Student proactively contributes to class by offering ideas and asking questions once per class. Student rarely contributes to class by offering ideas and asking questions. Student never contributes to class by offering ideas and asking questions. ____
Listening Skills Student listens when others talk, both in groups and in class. Student incorporates or builds off of the ideas of others. Student listens when others talk, both in groups and in class. Student does not listen when others talk, both in groups and in class. Student often interrupts when others speak. ____
Behavior Student almost never displays disruptive behavior during class. Student rarely displays disruptive behavior during class. Student occasionally displays disruptive behavior during class. Student almost always displays disruptive behavior during class. ____
Preparation Student is almost always prepared for class with assignments and required class materials. Student is usually prepared for class with assignments and required class materials. Student is rarely prepared for class with assignments and required class materials. Student is almost never prepared for class with assignments and required class materials. ____
        Total----> ____

Teacher Comments:

Pedagogical Hierarchy